THE WORLD THROUGH INSTITUTIONAL LENSES

DARON ACEMOGLU is the Killian Professor of Economics at MIT. In 2005 he received the John Bates Clark Medal awarded to economists under forty judged to have made the most significant contribution to economic thought and knowledge. He is the author of Why Nations Fail.

The issue is that when you look at the world from these sorts of institutional lenses, identifying problems becomes relatively easy. Solving them becomes very hard. It’s no mystery how you get economic growth. You need to provide opportunities and incentives. But how do you make that political equilibrium? How do you make it so that everybody in society actually agrees and abides by a system that provides those incentives and opportunities even if it’s not in their short-term interests? Those are the real challenges and that’s exactly the sorts of issues we’re seeing in Europe, it’s the sorts of issues we’re seeing in the United States, it’s the sorts of issues we’re seeing in Turkey. The problems are reasonably easy to identify. Developing solutions to them is hard because you cannot develop the solutions from the outside. It’s not an engineering problem. At the end of the day you really need the grassroots solution to it. You really need people themselves to start taking part in the political process because any solution you impose from above is not going to stick unless it has the support of the people, unless the people themselves are the ones who push for it, who demand it, and who implement that solution.

http://www.edge.org/

Seko gari spriedelējumi par ASV, Ķīnu, bijušo PSRS u.c.  Autors jautā: – Ar ko gan atšķiras attīstītas labklājības valstis (Zviedrija, Dānija, Norvēģija) no Ķīnas vai Āfrikas? Kāpēc vienās ir lielāks sociālais taisnīgums un labklājība, bet citās – nabadzība un noziedzība?

Spriedelēšana par Ķīnu, PSRS vai ASV un Eiropas atšķirībām neko neatklās un izpratnes un risinājumus nedos. To, kas notiek populācijās, nenosaka kaut kādas mācības, idejas vai teorijas, bet gan visu indivīdu rīcība, kopā sasummēta. Lielās atšķirības minētajās sabiedrībās ir tādēļ, ka tur ir atšķirīgas indivīdu iekšējās pasaules. Ja gribam mainīt to, kas sabiedrībā notiek, jāmaina (visu) indivīdu vērtības, tās, kas nosaka viņu rīcību. Šīs vērtības ir veidotas katras populācijas vēstures gaitā daudzu paaudžu laikā, to maiņa nav nedz grūta, nedz neiespējama (“Solving them becomes very hard.” “Developing solutions to them is hard because you cannot develop the solutions from the outside.“) Tikai to izmainīšanai būs nepieciešamas daudzas paaudzes. Tā ir visīstākā ‘inženierproblēma’ (It’s not an engineering problem), kuru inženieri un AI speciālisti zina un prot risināt: indivīdu apziņu maina, tās programmējot, pildot ar vajadzīgo saturu. IV

About basicrulesoflife

Year 1935. Interests: Contemporary society problems, quality of life, happiness, understanding and changing ourselves - everything based on scientific evidence. Artificial Intelligence Foundation Latvia, http://www.artificialintelligence.lv Editor.
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