- Are We doomed? (157)
- Artificial Intelligence (122)
- Common (882)
- Contemporary Society Problems (156)
- Economics and Politics (174)
- Happiness and Quality of Life (99)
- Human Evolution (198)
- Inequality and Social Justice (15)
- Scientific Publications, Abstracts & URL's (101)
- Understand and Manage Ourselves (235)
- Values and Sense of Life (140)
- Par Ilmāra Rimšēviča aizturēšanas iemesliem
- Ultralow power artificial synapses using nanotextured magnetic Josephson junctions
- Meaning of Life: Science Reveals Our Deepest Purpose
- The Doomsday Clock is now two minutes before midnight
- Mākslīgā inteliģence, pašreizējais stāvoklis, problēmas un nākotnes vīzija
- February 2018 (3)
- January 2018 (1)
- December 2017 (2)
- November 2017 (7)
- October 2017 (10)
- September 2017 (13)
- August 2017 (3)
- July 2017 (11)
- June 2017 (9)
- May 2017 (3)
- April 2017 (6)
- March 2017 (6)
- February 2017 (17)
- January 2017 (12)
- December 2016 (9)
- November 2016 (4)
- October 2016 (3)
- September 2016 (2)
- August 2016 (10)
- July 2016 (8)
- June 2016 (6)
- May 2016 (6)
- April 2016 (5)
- March 2016 (101)
- February 2016 (6)
- January 2016 (14)
- December 2015 (12)
- November 2015 (37)
- October 2015 (9)
- September 2015 (8)
- August 2015 (13)
- July 2015 (8)
- June 2015 (5)
- May 2015 (8)
- April 2015 (10)
- March 2015 (14)
- February 2015 (17)
- January 2015 (20)
- December 2014 (19)
- November 2014 (16)
- October 2014 (16)
- September 2014 (13)
- August 2014 (8)
- July 2014 (5)
- June 2014 (11)
- May 2014 (13)
- April 2014 (9)
- March 2014 (8)
- February 2014 (15)
- January 2014 (5)
- December 2013 (12)
- November 2013 (22)
- October 2013 (23)
- September 2013 (13)
- August 2013 (9)
- July 2013 (13)
- June 2013 (13)
- May 2013 (11)
- April 2013 (8)
- March 2013 (10)
- February 2013 (17)
- January 2013 (34)
- December 2012 (28)
- November 2012 (26)
- October 2012 (34)
- September 2012 (39)
- August 2012 (59)
- July 2012 (17)
- June 2012 (46)
- May 2012 (12)
- April 2012 (12)
- March 2012 (12)
- February 2012 (20)
- January 2012 (25)
- December 2011 (29)
- November 2011 (14)
- October 2011 (12)
- September 2011 (25)
Basic Rules in Short
“There is nobody in this country who got rich on his own. Nobody.” — Elizabeth Warren
Every man is a creature of the age in which he lives. Very few are able to raise above the ideas of the time. Voltaire.
Mūsu evolūcijas mantojums ir dārgumu krātuve, kur virspusē guļ nederīgais, nepiemērotais un kaitīgais, kurš jāierobežo un jāveido, bet, dziļāk ielūkojoties, katrs var atrast balvas un vērtības, kas ļauj dzīvot izcili un piepildīti. I. V.
The deterioration of every government begins with the decay of the principles on which it was founded.”
Montesquieu, (Charles Louis de Secondat) (1689-1755)
I do not know with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones. Albert Einstein
Mēs esam kā ceļinieki, kuriem svešinieks ir iedevis līdzšinējā ceļa aprakstu, bet nav iedevis tā ceļa aprakstu, pa kuru jāiet, lai nokļūtu pie mērķa. I. V.
The aim of science is to make difficult things understandable in a simpler way. The aim of poetry is to state simple things in an incomprehensible way.
“I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason and intellect, has intended us to forego their use”. Galileo (1584-1682).
“Facts do not cease to exist because they are ignored. ”
“It is the nature of human species to reject what is true but unpleasant but to embrace what is obviously false but comforting.” H.L. Mencken.
Eric Sevareid’s Law: “The chief source of problems is solutions”.
“What is lacking is not sufficient knowledge of the solution, but universal consciousness of the gravity of the problem and the education of the billions who are its victims.“
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
The greatest shortcoming of human race is our inability to understand the simple arithmetic. Albert Bartlett
Thinking is very upsetting, it tells us things we should rather not know.
“Giving society cheap, abundant energy . . . would be the equivalent of giving an idiot child a machine gun.”
~ Paul Ehrlich
“That which can be asserted without evidence, can be dismissed without evidence.” ― Christopher Hitchens
Ignorance is nothing to be ashamed of, and thinking and learning cures the problem of ignorance.
In contrast stupidity is forever, and being stupid implies wanting to remain ignorant. Lawrence B. Crowell
The whole problem with the world is that fools and fanatics are always so certain of themselves, and wiser people so full of doubts.
— Bertrand Russell
The majority of people are idiots, and because of this the few can control them. LC
For me, it is far better to grasp the Universe as it really is than to persist in delusion, however satisfying and reassuring.
Where a drunken person drinks in order to be happy, who can deny that such a person is happy when drunk? But the happiness can become a crutch and can be unhealthy in the long run. The happiness is only apparent and not real. Leyton M
If you look at the work of the ethologists (people who study animal behaviour) the most striking result to me is that all species develop behaviour patterns appropriate to their life styles and evolutionary niches in which they evolve.
I would suppose that this applies also to that degraded animal species, Homo sapiens. Sydney
“To most of us nothing is so invisible as an unpleasant truth. Though it is held before our eyes, pushed under our noses, rammed down our throats – we know it not.” Eric Hoffer
At the heart of science is an essential balance between two seemingly contradictory attitudes:
– an openness to new ideas, no matter how bizarre or counterintuitive, and
– the most ruthlessly skeptical scrutiny of all ideas, old and new.
This is how deep truths are winnowed from deep nonsense.
“Anyone who thinks that an economy can be expanded forever, within the confines of a finite planet, is either a madman or an economist”. ~ Kenneth Boulding.
Lai valdītu pār citiem, jāvalda pār sevi.
Pilnīgi un daudzpusīgi dzīvi izdzīvo vien tas, kurš dedzīgi ļaujas acumirklim un izdzīvo to tā, it kā tas būtu pēdējais.
Jo mazāk zina, jo vienkāršāk dzīvot. Zināšanas dara brīvu, bet nelaimīgu.
Īstenībā tas taču ir kauns, ka staigā pa zemi un par to gandrīz nekā nezina. Daudz lielāks kauns, ja vispār nezina, kādēļ staigā pa zemes virsu. E. M. Remarks
We have got rid of the fetish of the divine right of kings, and that slavery is of divine origin and outhority. But the divine right of property has taken its place. The tendency plainly is towards…’a government of the rich, by the rich and for the rich’.
Rutherford Birchard Hayes, US Prezident 1822-1893.
Neticiet tam, kas rakstīts senos manuskriptos, neticiet tam, kas paziņots par pareizu valstī, kurā jūs dzīvojat, neticiet tam, kas jums mācīts bērnībā, bet izdomājiet paši, kas ir patiess, un pēc tam, kad jūs esat par to pārliecinājies, ticiet tam, dzīvojiet saskaņā ar to, un palīdziet citiem ar to dzīvot.
Politika – tā ir nozare, kurā nepieņem lēmumus, kas balstās uz faktiem, bet runā par faktiem, kas balstās uz lēmumiem.
Liela daļa cilvēces vēstures pildīta ar cīņu par cilvēka tiesībām. Tā ir mūžīga cīņa, kurā pilnīga uzvara nav iespējama. Bet šīs cīņas atmešana nozīmē cilvēku sabiedrības sabrukumu.
Mūsdienu cilvēces problēmas nevar atrisināt ar to domāšanu, kura šīs problēmas radīja. A. Einšteins
Ateists ir nožēlojams cilvēks, kurš nespēj ticēt lietām, kuras nevar pierādīt. Tādā veidā viņš ir atņēmis sev iespēju justies pārākam par citiem. Chaz Bufe
Kad tehnikas spēki pārspēj morālos, tad mēs nonākam pie vadāmām raķetēm un nevadāmiem cilvēkiem.
Martin Luther King
Ja meli ir pietiekoši lieli un tie tiek atkārtoti pietiekoši bieži, tos sāk uztvert kā patiesību.
Tie, kas turpina ticēt absurdajam, tie turpina rīkoties absurdi. Voltērs
Cilvēki domā, ka viņi ir brīvi, bet tā ir liela kļūda. Brīvi viņi ir tikai tajā dienā, kad vēl parlamentu. Pārējā laikā viņi ir vergi un nekas. Viņi izmanto īso brīvības brīdi, lai to pazaudētu. Un tas ir pelnīti. Ž.Ž. Ruso
98% cilvēku ir saprogrammēti zombēti automāti un tikai 2% tādu nav. Pie tam tie 98% runā par sevi tā, it kā viņi būtu tie 2%.
Neviens cilvēks nekļūst par muļķi, kamēr viņš uzdod jautājumus. Charles Steinmetz
Valodas ir spēles, kuras pie dažādiem noteikumiem tiek izspēlētas dažādās kultūrās, un tādēļ kopēju, universālu izpratni iegūt nav iespējams. L Vitgenšteins.
Smieties bieži un daudz, iegūt inteliģentu cilvēku cieņu un bērnu mīlestību, iegūt godīgu kritiķu atzinību un paciest neīstu draugu nodevību, atstāt pasauli mazliet labāku nekā tā ir bijusi, vai nu veselīgā bērnā vai dārza stūrītī vai uzlabotā sabiedrībā. Zināt, ka cilvēki elpos brīvāk tādēļ, ka jūs esat dzīvojis – tas nozīmē, ka jums ir paveicies. Ralfs Waldo Emersons.
Ja kapitālisms ir vienlīdzīga bagātības sadale, tad sociālisms ir vienlīdzīga nabadzības sadale. Vinstons Čērčils.
Cilvēks, kurš gaida to dienu, sākot ar kuru viņš sāks dzīvot kārtīgi, ir līdzīgs zemniekam, kurš gaida, kamēr upe izžūs. Bet upe plūst un plūst. Horācijs.
Tas, kas cilvēkam netiek teikts, veido viņa pasaules uzskatu un iespaido viņa rīcību tāpat, kā tas, kas tiek teikts. To sauc par propagandu noklusējot. Tāpēc tik daudz pie mums ir slepens.
Charles Sullivan, ASV žurnālists.
Apziņa vai pat aizdomas, ka esi izdarījis kaut ko nepareizu, vajā un rada šausmas jebkuram cilvēkam, kurš sevi nav nocietinājis ar vienaldzību. Ādams Smits.
Tiem, kas nezina, kas ir mīlestība, nav vērts teikt – tāpat nesapratīs. Tiem, kas zina, kas mīlestība ir, arī nav vērts teikt, jo viņi to jau zina. Marlene Dietrich.
Acīmredzamus faktus visgrūtāk ir ieraudzīt pie sevis.
Ar apātiju pret politiku mēs maksājam ar to, ka valsti pārvalda negodīgi cilvēki. Platons.
Īsts džentlmenis izturas ar cieņu arī pret tiem, kas viņam nevar būt noderīgi. E.M. Remarque
Ārišķīgs lepnums un skaļa sava viedokļa aizstāvēšana liecina par iekšēju nedrošību par savu pozīciju.
Kas mēs esam? Ko mēs zinām? Ar nepilnīgām smadzenēm apveltīti radījumi, kas lūkojas Visuma bezgalībā. Radījumi ar eņģeļa spārniem un primātu instinktiem. Artūrs Konan-doils.
A few hours before Adolf Eichmann was executed, a prison warden asked him, “What should the Jews have done? How could they have resisted?”
Cilvēkiem, kuri tic alternatīvajai medicīnai, vajadzētu lidot lidmašīnās, kuras izstrādājuši fiziķi, kuri tic alternatīvajai fizikai. Terence Geogahegan
Ja cilvēki neprot pārvaldīt paši savu dzīvi, tad vēl jo mazāk viņiem var uzticēt vadīt citu dzīves. Thomas Jefferson
Gudri cilvēki šīs vienkāršās patiesības ierakstīja Neatkarības deklarācijā, bet, ja nākotnē kādi cilvēki vai grupas paziņos, ka tikai bagātiem ir pieejama dzīve, brīvība un laime, tad viņu pēcnācējiem jāielūkojoas Neatkarības Deklarācijā un jāatrod sevī drosme atjaunot cīņu, kuru uzsāka viņu tēvi.
Cilvēki, kuri nevar apmaksāt savus rēķinus, saņemt medicīnisko palīdzību un pabarot savus bērnus, daudz nerūpējas par apkārtējās vides un citiem globāliem jautājumiem. Lūk, tādēļ nav iespējams atdalīt sociālā taisnīguma un bagātību sadales jautājumus no apkārtējās vides saudzēšanas jautājumiem. Bob Zanelli
Cilvēku esības traģika nav meklējama nelaimēs. Tā ir ieraugāma mūsu nolemtībā. Nolemtībā būt lielo likumu izpildītājiem. Garret Hardin.
Cilvēks vēl joprojām savā ķermenī nes neizdzēšamu savas primitīvās izcelsmes zīmogu. Č. Darvins
Mūsu spēja sevi pārvaldīt atpaliek no mūsu spējas pārvaldīt Dabu. Mēs esam sarežģīta civilizācija. Mēs varam sagraut šo civilizāciju, ja mēs nespēsim pārvaldīt sevi. Dž. Soross.
Everything can be taken from a man but one thing, the last of human freedoms – to choose one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances. Victor Frankl
If ideal objectivity is impossible, failing to strive for it is nonetheless scientific suicide. Norman Levitt.
“Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.” A. Einstein
History is the long and tragic story of the fact that priviliged groups seldom give up their privileges voluntarily.
Martin Luther King.
Ticiet saviem sapņiem. Cilvēki, kuri noniecina citu sapņus, savējos ir pazaudējuši. E.M. Remarks
Reliģija bez zinātnes ir akla, bet zinātne bez reliģijas ir mazefektīva. A. Einšteins.
No laimīgas dzīves mūs attālina divas kļūdas:
– tad, kad mūsu dzīvē nepieciešamas lielas izmaiņas, mēs izdarām mazas;
– tad, kad mūsu dzīvē nepieciešamas mazas izmaiņas, mēs tās nedarām, jo domājam, ka vajadzīgas lielas.
Spēja nebūt pretrunā ir laimes priekšnoteikums.
No attāluma jebkurš ceļš šķiet gluds.
Treniņi un fiziska piepūle neprasa laiku. Tie dod mums papildus laiku.
Demokrātija ir nezinoša indivīda ticība kolektīvai zināšanai.
Doma, ka cilvēki atteiksies no irracionāliem priekšstatiem, ja tos konfrontēs ar neapgāžamiem faktiem, ir irracionāls priekšstats, kuru neapstiprina neapgāžami fakti. George Lakoff
Haoss ir tāda sakārtotība, kas rada apjukumu mūsu apziņā.
Mīlestībā abi domā, ka viņiem ir paveicies.
Lai saņemtu kādus labumus nepelnīti, vajadzīgi saprāts un izglītība. Bez tiem cilvēki turpina tiekties un ilgoties pēc šiem nepelnītajiem labumiem un to saņemšana un uzkrāšana nekad nedod piepildījumu. Plutarhs.
Ar vēlēšanām elite dod cilvēkiem iespēju balsot. Nelaime ir tā, ka tas ļauj viņiem domāt, ka viņi pieņem lēmumus.
I care not how affluent some may be, provided that none be miserable in consequence of it. —Thomas Paine, 1796
Freedom is the right not to lie. Albert Camus
We must not say every mistake is a foolish one. – Cicero
It’s always helpful to learn from your mistakes because then your mistakes seem worthwhile. – Garry Marshall
While one person hesitates because he feels inferior, the other is busy making mistakes and becoming superior. –
Henry C. Link
Experience is that marvelous thing that enables you to recognize a mistake when you make it again. – Franklin P. Jones
To avoid situations in which you might make mistakes may be the biggest mistake of all. – Peter McWilliams
Mistakes are part of the dues one pays for a full life. –
A life spent making mistakes is not only more honorable, but more useful than a life spent doing nothing. –
George Bernard Shaw
A man’s mistakes are his portals of discovery. – James Joyce
Experience is the name everyone gives to their mistakes.
– Oscar Wilde
Mistakes, obviously, show us what needs improving. Without mistakes, how would we know what we had to work on?
– Peter McWilliams
Creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes. Art is knowing which ones to keep. – Scott Adams
Success seems to be connected with action. Successful people keep moving. They make mistakes, but they don’t quit.
– Conrad Hilton
Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new. – Albert Einstein
All men make mistakes, but only wise men learn from their mistakes. – Winston Churchill
Take chances, make mistakes. That’s how you grow. Pain nourishes your courage. You have to fail in order to practice being brave.
– Mary Tyler Moore
There are no mistakes. The events we bring upon ourselves, no matter how unpleasant, are necessary in order to learn what we need to learn; whatever steps we take, they’re necessary to reach the places we’ve chosen to go. – Richard Bach
The only real mistake is the one from which we learn nothing.
– John Powell
If you have made mistakes, there is always another chance for you. You may have a fresh start any moment you choose, for this thing we call ‘failure’ is not the falling down, but the staying down. – Mary Pickford
Fall down seven times, stand up eight. – Chinese proverb
Without music, life would be a mistake. – Friedrich Nietzsche
The only man who never makes a mistake is the man who never does anything. – Theodore Roosevelt
Never interrupt your enemy when he is making a mistake. Napoleon Bonaparte
Never attribute to malice what can be explained by stupidity.
Evolution is almost universally accepted among those who understand it, almost universally rejected by those who don’t. Richard Dawkins
Svētīgi tie garā vājie kā rasotas pļavas miglotiem prātiem,
Jo tiem ir dots savu vājumu neapzināties.
Tad, kad mēs iemācīsimies redzēt, kā darbojas mūsu smadzenes, tad sāksim sevi saprast.
Tad, kad mēs iemācīsimies saprast citus, tad iegūsim mieru.
Tad, kad iemācīsimies patiesīgumu pret sevi, tad sāksim dzīvot.
Līdz pirmajam jādzīvo ilgi. Otro vairākums iegūst ar sevis maldināšanu. Priekš trešā vajadzīga drosme. I.V.
Ja savas kļūdas neredz, tā ir cilvēcīguma pazīme.
Ja savas kļūdas nelabo, tā ir vājuma pazīme.
Ja savas kļūdas noliedz, tā ir muļķības pazīme. I.V.
Indeed, I tremble for my planet, when I reflect that Nature is inflexible: that her response to our abuse cannot sleep forever.
If we don’t halt population growth with justice and compassion, it will be done for us by nature, brutally and without pity — and we will leave a ravaged world.
Dr. Henry W. Kendall, Nobel Laureate
No one in their right mind would let a first-century dentist fill their children’s teeth. Why, then, do we allow first-century theologians to fill our children’s minds?” Michael Dowd
Older people can see the injustice with more understanding and compassion. Laura Carstensen
Excessive Privilege should never be due merely to the luck of birth, nor should it ever be excessive even when earned.
Humanity today is like a waking dreamer, caught between the fantasies of sleep and the chaos of the real world. We have created Star Wars civilization, with stone age emotions, medieval institutions and godlike technology. We are terribly confused by the mere fact of our existence, and a danger to ourselves and to the rest of life.
Edward Osborn Wilson
If thou wilt make a man happy, add not unto his riches but take away from his desires. Epicurus
Turn every challenge into an opportunity, because opportunities open up for the prepared.
The Law, in its majestic equality, forbids the rich, as well as the poor, to sleep under the bridges, to beg in the streets, and to steal bread. Anatole France
Psychopath is someone who wants to do whatever he wants without concern for the consequences for others, and who strongly resents any restraint. kerry
Philosophy of science is about as useful to scientists as ornithology is to birds. Richard Feynman
More discoveries come from finding out that you’re wrong than from finding out that you’re right. Ian Linnell
“The old scientific ideal of episteme – of absolutely certain, demonstrable knowledge – has proved to be an idol. The demand for scientific objectivity makes it inevitable that every scientific statement must remain tentative for ever. It may indeed be corroborated, but every corroboration is relative to other statements which, again, are tentative. Only in our subjective experiences of conviction, in our subjective faith, can we be ‘absolutely certain.'”
– The Logic of Scientific Discovery, 1934, 1959
Faith is believing what you know isn’t true.
If you can’t explain it simply, you don’t understand it well enough.”
We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark;
the real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light.
“You can never cross the ocean until you have the courage to lose sight of the shore.” Christopher Columbus
“We are a way for the Universe to know itself”. Carl Sagan
“Labor is prior to, and independent of, capital. Capital is only the fruit of labor, and could never have existed if labor had not first existed. Labor is the superior of capital, and deserves much higher consideration.” –Abraham Lincoln
The most honorable way a scientist can make his contribution to human progress is to distribute knowledge. For free. I.V.
First love is a kind of vaccination which saves a man from catching the complaint the second time. – Honore de Balzac
College is a place where professor’s lecture notes go straight to the student’s lecture notes, without passing through the brains of either. Mark Twain
The mind is not a vessel that needs filling, but wood that needs igniting. Plutarch
To say that God did it is not to explain anything, but simply to offer an excuse for not having an explanation. (Plato, Cratylus)
The price of knowledge is eternal skepticism. Justen Robertson
If you can’t measure it, it doesn’t exist.
If you can’t reproduce it, you don’t understand it.
Power derives from force or the threat of force. Authority is the likelihood that a command, once given, will be obeyed.
If you break the laws of logic or probability theory you decrease your chances of arriving at true beliefs, and if you break the laws of decision theory then you decrease your chances of achieving your goals. Luke Muehlhauser
Give a child religion first, and she may find it hard to shake even when she encounters science.
Give a child science first, and when she discovers religion it will look silly. Luke Muehlhauser
We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark;
the real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light.
“I see in the near future a crisis approaching that unnerves me and causes me to tremble for the safety of my country. . . . corporations have been enthroned and an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money power of the country will endeavor to prolong its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until all wealth is aggregated in a few hands and the Republic is destroyed.”
— U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, Nov. 21, 1864
“Human beings function better if they are deceived by their genes into thinking that there is a disinterested objective morality binding upon them, which all should obey.”
–E. O. Wilson
“My propositions serve as elucidations in the following way: anyone who understands me eventually recognizes them as nonsensical.”
“Act only on that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.”
“Man when perfected is the best of animals, but when separated from law and justice he is the worst of all.”
“I do not fear death, in view of the fact that I had been dead for billions and billions of years before I was born, and had not suffered the slightest inconvenience from it.”‘
— Mark Twain
Not only will men of science have to grapple with the sciences that deal with man, but — and this is a far more difficult matter — they will have to persuade the world to listen to what they have discovered. If they cannot succeed in this difficult enterprise, man will destroy himself by his halfway cleverness.
~ Bertrand Russell, 1951
“Great understanding is broad and unhurried; little understanding is cramped and busy.” Chang Tzu
“The art of progress is to preserve order amid change and to preserve change amid order.”
— Alfred North Whitehead
For any belief, it is always possible to come up with a seemingly unlimited amount of supporting evidence.
David P. Barash
Science deals with facts discovered by observation and experimentation. Philosophy deals with beliefs derived by inference from facts.
We owe respect to the living. To the dead we owe only truth.
Dreams are illustrations from the book your soul is writing about you. Mascha Normann
You are what you do, not what you say.
“Of all things, good sense is the most fairly distributed: everyone thinks he is so well supplied with it that even those who are the hardest to satisfy in every other respect never desire more of it than they already have.”
René Descartes, Discourse on Method, 1637
If the writing is honest it cannot be separated from the man who wrote it. Tennessee Williams
You don’t really understand how something works until you can reproduce it yourself.
“The greatest obstacle to discovery is not ignorance-it is the illusion of knowledge.” -Daniel Boorstin
“…be careful what you wish for, you might get it…”
If there is any inconsistency in a set of axioms then every statement can be proved (and disproved), and nothing of any value remains. Chaitin, G.
Sorrow is how we learn to love. Your heart isn’t breaking. It hurts because it’s getting larger. The larger it gets, the more love it holds. Rita Mae Brown
A self is not something static, tied up in a pretty parcel and handed to the child, finished and complete. A self is always becoming. Madeleine L’Engle
People demand freedom of speech as a compensation for the freedom of thougt which they seldom use. Soren Kirkegaard
Most of the important things in the world have been accomplished by people who have kept on trying when there seemed to be no hope at all. Dale Carnegie
Education is not the learning of facts, but the traning of the mind to think. Albert Einstein.
To create, one must question everything. Eileen Gray.
Time is a great teacher, but unfortunately it kills all its pupils.
Louis Hector Berlioz.
Uz visu skatieties tā, it kā jūs to redzētu pirmo vai pēdējo reizi. Ar to jūs piepildīsiet savu laiku.
Everyone takes the limits of his own vision for the limits of the world. Arthur Schopenhauer.
Reason is, and ought only to be the slave of the passions, and can never pretend to any other office than to serve and obey them. David Hume
Mīlēt nozīmē riskēt, ka negūsi pretmīlestību. Cerēt nozīmē riskēt, ka vilsies. Cilvēks, kurš neriskē, neko nedara, neko nepieredz, viņam nepieder nekas, un viņš nav nekas. Viņš nespēj mācīties, mainīties, augt, mīlēt un dzīvot.
Es iešu caur dzīvi tikai vienreiz. Ja ir kāda laipnība, ko varu izrādīt, vai kāds labs darbs, ar ko varu kādam palīdzēt, tas jādara tagad. Jo pa šo ceļu man vairs nebūs lemts iet. Viljamss Penns.
Pasaulē nav vietas gļēvuļiem. Mums visiem ir jābūt gataviem strādāt, ciest un mirt. Tava dzīve nav mazāk cēla tikai tāpēc, ka tev pa priekšu neiet bundzinieks, kad dodies savās ikdienas cīņās, un tevi nesagaida gavilējošs pūlis, kad atgriezies ar uzvaru vai zaudējumu.
Roberts Lūiss Stīvensons.
Panākumi lielā mērā ir atkarīgi no tā, ka tu paliec un izturi tad, kad citi ir atmetuši ar roku. Viljams Peters
Būt gudram nozīmē saprast, cik kļūdaini ir mūsu uzskati un viedokļi, cik nenoteiktas un nestabilas ir vērtības, uz kurām mēs visvairāk paļaujamies. Džeralds Brenans
Tikai tas ir dižs, kas vientuļo vēja balsi pārvērš maigākajā dziesmā ar savu mīlestību. Kahlils Gibrāns
Nav iespējams liels talants bez liela gribasspēka. Onorē De Balzaks
Nežēlo laiku draudzībai – tas ir ceļš uz laimi.
Nežēlo laiku sapņiem – tie aizvedīs tavu kuģi līdz zvaigznēm.
Nežēlo laiku, lai sniegtu un saņemtu mīlestību – tā ir dievu privilēģija.
Nežēlo laiku, lai palūkotos apkārt – diena ir pārāk īsa, lai tu būtu savtīgs.
Nežēlo laiku smiekliem – tā ir dvēseles mūzika.
Mācies no pagātnes, lai mūža galā nebūtu jāsecina, ka tu nemaz neesi dzīvojis. Jo daudzi nonāk līdz brīdim, kad jāpamet sava vieta uz zemes, un, atskatoties atpakaļ, viņi redz prieku un skaistumu, kas tā arī viņiem nepiederēja, jo viņi dzīvoja bailēs. Klervotera
Nesteidzies, neraizējies. Tu esi ieradies tikai uz īsu brīdi. Tāpēc noteikti apstājies un pasmaržo ziedus. Volters Hāgens
Kad es piedzīvoju ārkārtīgi grūtu laiku, kāds man piezvanīja un automātiskajā atbildētājā bija dzirdams, ka viņš spēlāja klavieres.
Bet es tā arī neuzzināju, kurš tas bija.
Mums vajadzētu atcerēties, ka neesam vienīgie, kas reizēm nonāk šķietamā strupceļā. Jau tūkstoši pirms mums ir sastapušies ar līdzīgu likteni un uzvarējuši. Dr. R. Brašs
Mēs visi un ikviens no mums cieš sakāvi neskaitāmas reizes. Ja pieņemam zaudējumu ar gaišu prātu un no tā mācāmies un meklējam citu ceļu – rodam piepildījumu.
Rozanna Ambroza Brauna.
Laime ir kā smaržas, ko tu nevari uzliet citiem, pāris pilienu neuzpilinot arī sev. Ralfs Valdo Emersons.
Nav nepiepildāmu sapņu, ir tikai mūsu ierobežotā uztvere par to, kas ir iespējams. Beta Mende Konija
Vai tu domā, ka vari, vai domā, ka nevari – tev ir taisnība!
Labākā izeja no grūtībām ved cauri grūtībām. Roberts Frosts
Dzīve prasa tikai to spēku, kāds tev ir. Ir jāpaveic tikai viens varoņdarbs – tu nedrīksti bēgt. Dāgs Hammerskjelds
Mums pietiek cilvēku, kas mums stāsta, kā ir. Tagad mums noderētu kāds, kas pateiktu, kā varētu būt. Roberts Orbens
Mūsu pienākums ir veidot savu raksturu. Mūsu dižais un brīnišķais mākslas darbs ir piedienīga dzīve. Viss pārējais labākā gadījumā ir tikai piedevas un atbalsts. Mišels de Montēns
Senā laime ir novītusi un mirusi. Bet, raugi, jauns zaļums rotā zemi…
Trauslais jaunas un labākas dzīves iesākums. Pema Brauna
Nemeklē atbildes, kuras tev nav iespējams dot, jo tu nespētu ar tām dzīvot. Galvenais ir visu izdzīvot. Pēc tam tu pamazām, to pat nemanot, nodzīvosi līdz dienai, kad saņemsi atbildi.
Rainers Marija Rilke
Stabilitāte nāk no iekšienes, nevis no ārpuses. Lusila Kliftone
Cerība ir radījums ar spārniem, kas ligzdo mūsu dvēselē, dzied dziesmu bez vārdiem un nekad nenorimst. Emīlija Dikinsone
Arī šis mirklis paies. Klēra Reinere.
Kad tu esi gājis tik tālu, ka nevari paspert vairs nevienu soli, tad tu esi nogājis tieši pusi no attāluma, ko spēj noiet.
Remember: the time you feel lonely is the time you most need to be by yourself. Life’s cruelest irony. Douglas Coupland
Love is lak de sea. It’s uh movin’ thing, but still and all, it takes its shape from de shore it meets, and it’s different with every shore. Zora Neale Hurston
If the real world were a book, it would never find a publisher. Overlong, detailed to the point of distraction – and ultimately, without a major resolution. Jasper Fforde
Do not regret growing older. It is a privilege denied to many.
The time will come when, with elation, you will greet yourself arriving
at your own door, in your own mirror, and each will smile at the other’s welcome. Derek Walcott
Only a rule of skin in the game, that is, direct harm from one’s errors, can puncture the game aspect of research and establish some form of contact with reality.
Nassim Nicholas Taleb, Distinguished Professor of Risk Engineering, NYU-Poly
For each of us comes a time when we must be more than what we are. Lloyd Alexander
There are in nature neither rewards nor punishments – there are only consequences.
Robert G. Ingersoll
“The fact that a believer is happier than a skeptic is no more to the point than the fact that a drunken man is happier than a sober one.” ~ GEORGE BERNARD SHAW
Nobody ever figures out what life is all about, and it doesn’t matter. Explore the world. Nearly everything is really interesting if you go into it deeply enough. Richard P. Feynman
Laws are the spider’s webs which, if anything small falls into them they ensnare it, but large things break through and escape. -Solon
Worry never robs tomorrow of its sorrow, but only saps today of its strength. A.J. Cronin
Keep your eyes on the stars, and your feet on the ground. ” — Theodore Roosevelt
‘One death is a tragedy, a million a statistic.’ Josef Stalin
I have just realized that the stakes are myself.
I have no other ransom money, nothing to break or barter but my life. Diane di Prima
We live at a time when emotions and feelings count more than truth, and there is a vast ignorance of science. James Lovelock
Champagne, if you are seeking the truth, is better than a lie detector. Graham Greene
Learning something new is always slower than actually doing something old. Pemberton
By sticking your head in the sand and refusing to acknowledge the problem, you are part of it.
Peace cannot be kept by force.
It can only be achieved through understanding.
To see what is in front of one’s nose requires a constant struggle. G. Orwell.
Anyone can be a barbarian; it requires a terrible effort to remain a civilized man. Leonard Woolf
When we killed–or exiled–God, we also killed ourselves…. No God, no afterlife, no us. We were right to kill Him, of course, this long-standing imaginary friend of ours. And we weren’t going to get an afterlife anyway. But we sawed off the branch we were sitting on. And the view from there, from that height–even if it was only an illusion of a view–wasn’t so bad.
All people are not people without other people.
We are a way of the cosmos to know itself.
It is easier to point the finger of blame at others than it is to find and implement solutions.
Whatever it is you’re seeking won’t come in the form you’re expecting. Haruki Murakami
Visu mūsdienu sabiedrību traģika ir tā, ka mēs esam nolemti rīkoties saskaņā ar to nezināšanu, kāda mums ir. Tāpēc arī civilizācijas iet bojā.
Insincerity is a special kind of dishonesty. Jim Wyman
Reason exists for the sake of the emotions, not the other way around. David Hume
We do not see things as they are, we see them as we are. Saying of the cetics
A belief that cruelty and violence are needed to address cruelty and violence only perpetuates cruelty and violence. Christine Hansen
Before we can know what is moral, we must know what is true.
Under capitalism, man exploits man. Under communism, it’s just the opposite.
John Kenneth Galbraith
The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge. Stephen Hawking
We don’t receive wisdom, we must discover it for ourselves after a journey through the wilderness, which no one else can make for us, which no one can spare us. Marcel Proust.
A Report to the European Commission
Šī ziņojuma autori raksta, ka par smadzeņu pētīšanas tēmu ir sarakstīts un publicēts tūkstošiem darbu, un neviens pētnieks tos vairs nevar izlasīt. Citiem vārdiem, pateikts tas pats, ko grāmatā ‘Universe in a Nutshell’ rakstīja Stīvens Houkings: “90% from everything published in science is trash”.
HBP mērķis ir mēģināt apvienot derīgo paveikto, apzināt faktisko stāvokli (derīgās zināšanas un paveikto) un izpildīt jaunus pētījumus.
Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest challenges facing 21st century science. If we can rise to the challenge, we can gain fundamental insights into what it means to be human, develop new treatments for brain diseases, and build revolutionary new Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). In this report, we argue that the convergence between ICT and biology has reached a point at which it can turn this dream into reality. It was this realization that motivated the authors to launch the Human Brain Project – Preparatory Study (HBP-PS) – a one year EU-funded Coordinating Action in which nearly three hundred experts in neuroscience, medicine and computing came together to develop a new “ICT-accelerated” vision for brain research and its applications. Here, we present the conclusions of our work.
We find that the major obstacle that hinders our understanding the brain is the fragmentation of brain research and the data it produces. Modern neuroscience has been enormously productive but unsystematic. The data it produces describes different levels of biological organisation, in different areas of the brain in different species, at different stages of development. Today we urgently need to integrate this data – to show how the parts fit together in a single multilevel system.
Robotu pētīšana ir iecerēta divos līmeņos. Lai atstrādātu programmu, virtuālu robotu ievieto virtuālā ārējā vidē, un tajā noeksperimentē tā ‘izturēšanos’ un optimizē programmas. Pēc tam optimizēto programmu ievieto fiziskā robotā un tam liek darboties reālā vidē.
State of the art
The evolutionary function of a brain is to control organisms’ behaviour in their environment. In principle, therefore, the only way to test or characterize the high level behavioural or cognitive capabilities of a brain model is to create a closed loop between the model and a body acting in an environment and to interrogate the model through well-designed experiments (see Figure 28). Once a set-up has successfully replicated we can then identify causal mechanisms by lesioning or manipulating specific brain regions, transmitter systems, types of neuron etc.
Although robotics has yet to win broad recognition as a valid tool for cognitive and behavioural research, a number of groups have attempted to use robots as an experimental tool. Current work can be roughly divided into models based on ideas, models driven exclusively by behavioural data and models that combine biological and behavioural data. It is this last category of model, which is most relevant to the HBP.
An initial strategy for closed-loop experiments in the HBP could be defined as follows.
1. Researchers would choose a cognitive or behavioural capability that has already been well characterized in cognitive and behavioural studies and for which theory has already identified a putative cognitive architecture. They would then design an in silico experiment to test the ability of a model brain to reproduce this capability and to dissect the multi-level mechanisms responsible. The experimental design would be comparable to the design for an animal or human experiment.
2. They would then use the Neurorobotics Platform to design a simulated robot body and a simulated environment, linking the body to a brain model on the High
Performance Computing Platform, chosen to represent an appropriate level of biological detail, for instance a biologically detailed model for a study of a drug, a point
neuron network for a study of the neuronal circuitry responsible for a particular behaviour.
3. Once the brain model was established, the platform would export a simplified version to a physical emulation of the model running on neuromorphic hardware.
The platform would provide the interface to couple the neuromorphic device to the simulated robot and environment. The new set-up would run many times faster
than real-time, making it possible to train the model over long periods of simulated time.
4. Once trained, the model would be tested, comparing the results against animal or human studies. Quantitative and qualitative differences would be analysed, and the results used to refine the brain model, the robot body and the training protocol.
5. Once the model displayed the desired cognitive or behavioural capability, researchers would dissect the underlying neural mechanisms, performing manipulations
(e.g. systematic lesions, systematic changes in neuronal morphology or in synaptic transmission) and making systematic measurements (e.g. measurements
of cell activity and synaptic dynamics), impossible in animals or in human subjects. These methods should make it possible to obtain new insights into the neuronal
circuitry responsible for the model’s capabilities, confirming or disconfirming theoretical hypotheses, and guiding the development of technologies inspired by these insights.
6. Where appropriate, the trained brain model would be exported to digital neuromorphic devices allowing physical robots to perform the experimental task in real
time, in a physical environment. Such physical robots would provide a starting point for future applications (see below).
Pilot studies and open calls should encourage experimental investigations of a broad range of perceptual, cognitive and motor capabilities, beginning with capabilities
that are relatively simple and gradually moving towards more advanced functionality. Candidate capabilities could include basic visual, auditory and somatosensory processing including multisensory perception; object recognition (recognition of faces, body parts, houses, words etc.); action recognition; novelty detection (e.g. auditory novelty detection through mismatch negativity); motivation, emotion and reward; premotor transformations, motor planning and execution of motor behaviour; representations of the spatial environment and navigation; decisiondecision-making and error correction; information maintenance and memory encoding: working memory, time-dependent stabilization of cortical representations; and language production and processing.
• Tools for massive data management
• Internet accessible collaborative tools
• Brain atlases and encyclopedia
• Data intensive computing tools
• Data and knowledge predictors
• In silico systems for experiments
• Closed loop technology
• Theory for bridging scales
• Multi-level view of brain function
The HBP seeks to accelerate research into the causes, diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disease (see Figure 29). As a first step, the HBP should use the Medical Informatics Platform and the data it generates to identify biological signatures for specific disease processes, at different levels of biological organisation. This work would lead towards a new nosological classification based on predisposing factors and biological dysfunctions rather than symptoms and syndromes.
We propose that pilot projects should test this strategy for autism, depression and aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Open calls for proposals would encourage outside researchers to extend this work and to investigate other diseases. The second goal should be to use biological signatures of disease as a source of insights into disease processes and to use modelling and simulation as tools to investigate hypotheses of disease causation.
The third goal should be to use disease models to identify potential drug targets and other possible treatment strategies and to simulate their desirable and potentially adverse effects. The fourth goal should be to develop strategies for personalized medicine, allowing the development of treatment strategies adapted to the specific condition of individual patients.
State of the art
Presently there are very few neurological and psychiatric diseases whose causes are fully understood even when their patho-anatomy and patho-physiology are largely known. For example, in Parkinson’s disease we still do not understand the steps that lead from degeneration of less than a million specific nigro-striatal cells to the first clinical symptoms (tremor, akinesia), which only appear when 60% of these cells have already been lost . In a small proportion of cases, the
damage is due to exogenous poisons . In many cases, however, the triggering factor(s) is unknown. This situation is complicated by the fact that other relatively common brain diseases have similar Parkinsonian manifestations. It is not known why such symptoms are so common.
Information from Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) has made it increasingly clear that many diseases with different biological causes (e.g., the spino-cerebellar ataxias and multiple associated mutations) present with similar symptoms and vice versa (e.g., Huntington’s disease presenting with emotional disorders, cognitive deficits or movement disorder). These relationships make it difficult to identify specific drug targets, to select patients for clinical trials and to create homogeneous trial cohorts. These are some of the reasons why many pharmaceutical companies have withdrawn from brain research.
Problems with current systems of disease classification and scientific advances – particularly in genetics – are slowly leading researchers to shift their attention from syndromic to biologically-grounded classifications of disease. Until recently, for instance, the dementias were still diagnosed in terms of dementing syndromes, which often failed to match final post mortem analyses. Today, by contrast, clinicians are beginning to interpret neurodegenerative disorders, including the dementias, as diseases of protein misfolding .
The Medical Informatics Platform would place Europe in a position in which it could pioneer this new biological approach to nosology.
Another area of research, of great relevance to the HBP, is simulation-based pharmacology. Current applications of simulation in drug design focus on the dynamics of molecular interactions between drugs and their targets. To date however, there has been little or no work simulating the complex cascade of events that determines desirable or adverse effects at higher levels of biological organisation. The lack of effective methods to predict these effects may be one reason for the high rate of failure of CNS drugs in clinical trials. Recent pharmacogenetic studies of anticonvulsants (patient responsiveness to positive drug effects and predisposition to adverse effects) support this hypothesis .
Categorizing human brain diseases. A first important goal for the HBP should be to identify specific biological signatures that characterize disease processes. The discovery of such signatures would result in a new nosology, based on objective and reproducible biological and clinical data such as brain scans of various types, electrophysiology, electroencephalography, genotyping, metabolic, biochemical and haematological profiles and validated clinical instruments providing quantitative measurements of emotion and behaviour.
Initial work by the HBP should focus on the biologically grounded categorization of autism, depression and Alzheimer’s. However, a large part of the overall budget
should be reserved for open calls, encouraging research by scientists from outside the Consortium. The calls should encourage systematic study of the full range of neurological and psychiatric disease, making no distinction between disorders of perception, cognition, action, mood, emotion and behaviour.
Simulate hypotheses of disease causation. The discovery of biological signatures for a disease would suggest hypotheses of disease causation. The Brain Simulation Platform should therefore allow researchers to model alterations in brain physiology and structure they believe to be implicated in different diseases and to simulate the complex non-linear interactions leading to changes in cognition and behaviour. The realization that the brain is not susceptible to linear analysis has come slowly.
Again, we are at a tipping point – the Brain Simulation Platform would make it possible to simulate the effects of brain lesions on the overall functioning of brain systems, including the short-term, adaptive plasticity effects that normally palliate lesions. Simulation would also facilitate the testing of causative hypotheses for diseases for which there are no available animal models, and for disorders where such models are inadequate, for example, when disorders are associated with defects in higher cognitive function. Simulation would also teach researchers to distinguish between causative and secondary alterations associated with disease processes. The success of this kind of research will be judged by its contribution to understanding the role of different levels of biological organisation in brain disease, and to identifying new targets for treatment.
The brain evolved to control the body as it interacts with its environment, interactions that many researchers in robotics have attempted to replicate. In most cases, however, the models and robots they have used have been distant from biology. The HBP Neurorobotics Platform would allow them to interface a detailed brain model to a simulated body with an appropriate set of actuators and sensors, place the body in a simulated environment, train it to acquire a certain capability or set of capabilities, and compare its performance against results from human or animal experiments (see Figure 14). The platform would provide the tools and workflows necessary to perform this kind of experiment and to dissect the cognitive architectures involved, enabling radically new strategies for studying the multi-level mechanisms underlying behaviour. Additional tools for technology developers would make it possible to transfer brain models developed in simulation to physical robots, with low power neuromorphic controllers – an essential step towards the development of robots – robotic vehicles etc. – for use in manufacturing, services and the home.
The HBP Neurorobotics Platform should make it easy for researchers to design simulated robot bodies, to connect these bodies to brain models, and to embed the bodies in dynamic simulated environments. The resulting set-ups should allow them perform in silico experiments, initially replicating previous experiments in animals and human subjects, but ultimately breaking new ground.
The platform should provide researchers with access to simulated brain models running slower than real time, and to emulated models running faster than real time. In initial experiments, robots and environments would be simulated. For applications-related work requiring real-time operation, the platform should provide access to main-core implementations suitable for use with physical robots and machinery, together with the necessary interfaces (see Figure 26).
The Neurorobotics Platform should consist of three core modules.
This module would allow researchers to build simulated robots based to detailed specifications. It would include the following components.
• A Robot Builder: a generic tool to design, develop and deploy simulated robots.
• A Sensory System Builder: a tool to generate models of perception in different modalities (auditory perception, visual perception etc.).
• A Motor System Builder: a tool to generate models of motor systems (muscles or motors) and of the peripheral nervous system.
• A Brain-Body Integrator: automated routines for the calibration of brain models to work with the selected body sensory and motor systems.
This module would allow researchers to build rich simulated environments in which they can test their robots and run experiments. The module would provide the following tools.
• An Environment Builder: a generic software tool for designing and deploying dynamically changing simulated environments.
• An Experiment Designer: a tool to configure experiments and to specify testing and measuring protocols.
• An Electronic Coach: a software tool allowing researchers to define and execute multi-stage training protocols for robots (specification of timing, stimuli, correct and
incorrect behaviours, and reward signals for each stage).
This module would make it possible to create a closed loop between a simulated or a physical robot and a brain model. It would include the following.
• A Closed-loop Engine: generic tools to couple software and neuromorphic brain models to simulated and physical robots and to other devices.
• The Human Interaction interface: a software tool that allows human experimenters to interact with robots and their environment.
• A Performance Monitor: a set of tools to monitor and analyse the performance of the neurorobotic system in its environment, and to produce configurable diagnostic
Building and operating the platform
The HBP Neurorobotics Platform would integrate the three modules and provide researchers with a control centre, where they could configure, execute and analyse the results of neurorobotics experiments. A dedicated team would provide users with the training support and documentation required to make effective use of the platform. The HBP should run an active visitors programme for scientists wishing to use the platform.
Vērtīgs pārskats par stāvokli nozarē un tuvākājā nākotnē iecerēto. PDF: